Jump to navigation Jump to search The term “Latin America” primarily refers to the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking countries in the New World. The region came under control of the crowns of Spain dating history in america Portugal, which imposed both Roman Catholicism and their respective languages.
Both the Spanish and the Portuguese brought African slaves to their colonies, as laborers, particularly in regions where indigenous populations who could be made to work were absent. In the early nineteenth century nearly all of areas of Spanish America attained independence by armed struggle, with the exceptions of Cuba and Puerto Rico. Brazil, which had become a monarchy separate from Portugal, became a republic in the late nineteenth century. Political independence from European monarchies did not result in the abolition of black slavery in the new sovereign nations. In the mid-twentieth century, especially in the United States, there was a trend to occasionally classify all of the territory south of the United States as “Latin America,” especially when the discussion focused on its contemporary political and economic relations to the rest of the world, rather than solely on its cultural aspects.
Since, the concept and definitions of Latin American are very modern, going back only to the nineteenth century, it is anachronistic to talk about “a history of Latin America” before the arrival of the Europeans. What is now Latin America has been populated for several millennia, possibly for as long as 30,000 years. There are many models of migration to the New World. Precise dating of many of the early civilizations is difficult because there are few text sources.
Christopher Columbus landed in the Americas in 1492. Subsequently, the major sea powers in Europe sent expeditions to the New World to build trade networks and colonies and to convert the native peoples to Christianity. During the European colonization of the western hemisphere, most of the native population died, mainly by disease. In what has come to be known as the Columbian exchange, diseases such as smallpox and measles decimated populations with no immunity. The conquerors and colonists of Latin America also had a major impact on the population of Latin America. The Spanish conquistadors committed savage acts of violence against the natives. According to Bartolomé de las Casas, the Europeans worked the native population to death, separated the men and the women so they could not reproduce, and hunted down and killed any natives who escaped with dogs.
Because the Spanish were now in power, native culture and religion were forbidden. These codices contained information about astrology, religion, Gods, and rituals. Dresden Codex, Paris Codex, Madrid Codex, and HI Codex. The Spanish Crown regulated immigration to its overseas colonies, with travelers required to register with the House of Trade in Seville. Francisca de Figueroa, an African-Iberian woman seeking entrance into the Americas, petitioned the Spanish Crown in 1600 in order to gain a license to sail to Cartagena.EnableInternalCSP_request